Atoms may stick together in well-defined molecules or they could be packed together in large arrays.
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The first lesson, Isotopes of Pennies, deals with isotopes and atomic mass.
The second lesson, Radioactive Decay: A Sweet Simulation of Half-life, introduces the idea of half-life.
Because I did not want to introduce dates that were probably wrong, I used an approach discussed by Bonsall, Cook, and others, and described by them as was constructed in this way. When I use it—when dates are based principally on human bone—I warn readers in the text.
It seems to yield results that solve some long-problematic dating offsets in steppe chronology (see ch. Whatever errors it introduces probably are smaller than those caused by ignoring the problem.
But many of the radiocarbon dates from steppe archaeology are from cemeteries, and the dated material often is human bone.
Widespread tests of the N in human bone from many different steppe cemeteries, from Kazakhstan to Ukraine, indicate that fish was a very important part of most ancient steppe diets, often accounting for 50% of the meat consumed.
To be able to do this lesson and understand the idea of half-life, students should understand ratios and the multiplication of fractions, and be somewhat comfortable with probability.
For the laboratory portion of this lesson, you will have to set up the ring stands, rings, funnels, and graduated cylinders.
All the radiocarbon dates listed in the tables in this book are regular BP and calibrated BCE dates, without any correction for the reservoir effect.
This lesson is the third in a three-part series about the nucleus, isotopes, and radioactive decay.
This is called the “reservoir effect” because seas act as a reservoir of old carbon.